Infertility treatment has become particularly important in last decades. Well-being and standard of living is increasing every year, but the basic and necessary for procreation of the human body functions are significantly suffered. Scientists enthusiastically argue that it is the cause of infertility progressive population of the Earth: environmental pollution, the rapid development of technology, genetically modified foods, or any other adverse environmental factors, while the number of infertile couples is increasing.
For the present day the couples who need an infertility treatment are not less than 50-80 mln. Every year this quantity is increasing for more 2 million. And it is only those people who have appealed with the problem to the official medicine. In fact, infertility is much more: some sublimate their desire to have children in other spheres of life, others appeal to adoption, and others simply resign themselves with their pain. Meanwhile, the clinics of reproductive medicine decide all infertility problems more effectively from year to year, giving the joy of motherhood and fatherhood to tens of thousands of couples.
Contrary to popular belief that female infertility is more common than male, the percentage rate 40% is shared between each sexes. The remaining 20% it is an immunological incompatibility of partners, or so-called unexplained infertility. The most common problems faced by specialists in the treatment of female infertility are different ovulation disorders, diseases of the uterus and fallopian tubes, endometriosis, hormonal and genetic abnormalities. It should be noted that the risk of infertility increases significantly in mature age, particularly for women.
Such a decreasing of fertility is understandable – in 30 years a woman has in 3 times less of follicles than in 20 years old. Moreover, the quality of matured oocytes with age becomes much worse. Besides a long-term absence of pregnancy as such, a poor quality of egg can lead to a miscarriage or birth of a child with a genetic disorders. For men the age of decreased level of the ability to conceive a child comes is much later – about 55 years. However, an alcohol abuse, smoking, junk food and a sedentary lifestyle can bring to the pathological changes in the male reproductive system at a young age.
If an impregnation does not occur during a year, both partners have to pass through examinations. The examination of a woman includes necessary evaluation of a condition of her ovaries, uterine and uterine tubes, different hormonal tests, examination of the genitourinary infection and sexually transmitted diseases. The principal method of the detection of male infertility is a spermgram. The specialists evaluate quantity, morphology and mobility of sperm cells. If the quantity and quality of cells is not in appropriated condition, the additional examinations are indicated for revealing the reasons which have a negative impact on man spermatogenesis. Also it is necessary to pass an examination for biological and immunological compatibility of a couple. In certain cases it is reasonable to make karyotype research of both partners for exclude the possibility of chromosomal abnormalities in a future child.
Treatment methods of assisted reproductive technology
Nowadays reproductive medicine has a solid knowledge in the sphere of infertility treatment for all forms. The main procedure during last 3 decades is in-vіtro fertilization (IVF). The procedure of IVF is well-known and proven by specialists all-over the world. It consist of the several stages: stimulation of ovulation in a woman, fertilization of oocytes in the laboratory, monitoring of the embryos cultivation, transfer of no more than 3 embryos of high quality to the uterine cavity.
The stages of a treatment are standard but the individual features of every person need individual approach as in the prescriptions of special medicaments as well as in determination of terms of every stage of a treatment. Practically all the clinics of reproductive medicine offer these methods of treatment, their efficiency are proven by dozens and hundreds of children seen the light. Yet the efficiency of IVF itself is no more than 40%. Therefore the principal task of fertility specialists all-over the world is to increase quantity of successful IVF cycles.
Thus, at recent time, at clinics of reproductive medicine there is a procedure of 5-day embryos (blastocyst) instead of “younger” 3-day embryos. The blastocyst is ideal for a transfer because at this term of such embryo it is easier to define its perspective ability to develop in mother’s organism. The other methods of assisted reproductive technologies are aimed to improve the statistic data of successful IVF cycles. The one of the extended method of infertility treatment is ICSI which means direct injection of spermatozoid to an oocyte. Usually ICSI is indicated for male infertility of a secretory type and very often works in IVF.
However ICSI, intending the magnification of 200-400 times with a microscope, does not allow to evaluate the quality of spermatozoids on all levels, in the cases of complex pathology of the sperm the only one conventional ICSI it is not enough. Therefore in 1999 the scientist proposed more innovative method of IMSI. This method suggests the magnification of 6600 times and allows to evaluate the smallest abnormalities in the structure of male germ cells. For risks assessment of genetic abnormalities in the embryo we use such methods as pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Both methods suggest an embryo research for the presence of pathological changes in the genome of the embryo before transferring it into the woman’s uterus. These methods not only increase the efficiency of in-vitro fertilization but also are indicated in the cases of genetic abnormalities in the genotype of the couple as well as decrease the risk of miscarriages and birth of children with genetic deviations.
The specialists of the clinic “Nadiya” have elaborated several effective programs that increase the effectiveness of infertility treatments, while minimizing the financial risk of the couple. The choice of treatment depends on the cause of infertility, duration of infertility, age of the couple.